Research Paper Samples

Experimental and Quasi Experimental Research


Qualitative research refers to a family of philosophies which are characterized by positive evaluations of science and scientific methods. Qualitatively, variance can be expressed as the real or positive number in many situations. When a variance amounts to zero, this is an indication that all the scores for that particular variable are the same or are similar.

Types of variables

Variables are divided into two classes, that is, independent variable and dependent variable. Dependent variable is the variable that has to relate with other factors in order to provide the appropriate information. On the other hand, Independent variables are those that do not rely on any factor so as to provide accurate information. In order to ensure that the research design that is being used is not extremely complex, the number of independent variables have to be limited in the study. This can be done by ensuring that any potential independent variable is held constant. For instance, having the entire variable for the study as women, so as to avoid having effects of sex on the dependent variable. In cases where the sample control is not possible, statistical controls are used to minimize the effects of independent variable (Billig, 2003).

When the variance amounts to zero, this has positive implications on the independent variable because it will still have its data, but in the case of dependent, the implications will be negative because it has to rely on other factors.
Whenever there is an experiment, it means that there is at least a single independent variable known as the experimental variable. It is manipulated by the researcher. However, in quasi experimental research, constant sets are used. The random method is used to spread variance across the set for the experimental study to work efficiently. In cases where this randomization is not possible, it is appropriate for the researcher to strive and discover how this might affect the quasi experiment.

Experimental validity

There are two types of experimental validity, internal and external validity. Internal validity looks at the nature of the study, interprets the relationship of variable in the study, and comes up with the conclusions. On the other hand, external concerns the generalizability of the study’s results and focuses on how the sample will represent the interest of the population. Obtaining internal validity is easy in experimental research because there is tight internal control on what is done. It is also easy in external in quasi, because the situation is close to the real world (Bootzin, 2006).

Literature review

Review of literature review

Various articles have been used in the review of a formal structure of the research. These articles should have search words, which should be, used in the research. It is appropriate for those who do not know how to select these words to do so with a librarian who is familiar with the process. There should also be data base for the search, and a data range should also be selected.

The chosen topic of interest is the study’s key focus. This is because the topic has various research question, aims, and methodological designs. A sample of at least fifty people was chosen since given the detailed methods to carry out the research, it is possible to get the appropriate findings by identifying the study’s strengths and weaknesses. After the above assessment, it is clear that the research is appropriate.

However, in most cases, literature reviews have their own faults. For instance, they do not have a clear focus, especially because in many cases they do not provide appropriate definitions of topics or subtopics. They do not also draw any conclusions from the literature reviews, and it does not group its studies in any way. That is, by historical progression, methodology or even, direct findings (Gibaldi, 2009).

Correlation and correlation studies

Correlation study describes the relationship between two or more variables, but in most cases, researchers are interested in the strength of the relationship. In order to understand this clearly, graphs are used. There is no relationship at all between two variables if both variables are equal. There is a positive linear relationship if one variable increase with the increase of the other. When a variable decreases with an increase in the other, there is negative linear relationship. However, when there is a curve, it means the relationship is curvilinear. From the research, it is clear that there is a strong relationship between variables (Kamil, 2002).

Correlation design

Correlation assists the researcher in investigating the relationship between two variables. If the variables co varies, it means that one of the variables will say something about the other. The designs help in providing statistical tests which measure and describe the relationship between the variables (Kumar, 2005).

Mixed methods

Research methods

In order to determine the type of research method to use, one requires asking several questions. For instance, what procedure or logic should be followed? The most appropriate way to answer this question for the research methodology is using theories of knowledge and qualitative methods to provide answers. There is the use of interviews, documents and policies analysis, and also some content analysis. The design of the research should have articulated questions that help in the informing of the techniques and approaches to use. This is where the problem of a time table comes up which helps in having a time frame on when the whole research should end (Newton, 2007).

The mixed methods should be quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative will look at the quality of the data provided while qualitative looks at the quality of the data. Will it provide information that can be relied on during the process of analysis?
The key reason for having different methodologies is so as to ensure that there is complexity of the information. This helps in coming up with accurate information at the end of the research.

Questionnaires and survey research

In a research paper, after looking at the literature review, the final thing is to come up with an analysis of what has been gathered which is also referred to as survey research, finally is the questionnaire that was used by the respondents and that is used in collecting data (Ross, 2003).

In education and social sciences, the most common research method is…

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