Karl Marks is an outstanding personality in the history of economic science. His works on the economics of capitalism laid foundation to the development of separate philosophical stream – Marxian Economics. It is important to differentiate Marxian economics from Marxism, as the latter one is the theory of political and social science. Marx was the first to discuss and identify the role of proletarian revolution as the basis for development of capitalism.
One of the major works ever written by Marx is The Capital. The author worked on this book for more than ten years overall and the entire version of the work was only published after his death. The Marxian Economics is based on Marx’s perception and analysis of the works and studies prepared by his predecessors and opponents, such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo. The Capital is often considered as a response to them, in particular to the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith. While both works agreed on fundamental role of capital and production capabilities in the economic relationships, they had fundamentally different views on some of the elements of labor relations.
War and battles are supposed to be the turning points of the flow of history – yet in reality they rarely decide anything much more than petty disputes between people and states, generally leaving the overall background unaltered. There are, however, several battles in it that have actually changed the way the history developed – during one day or even less they defined how the world will look for centuries afterwards. These battles created a wide field for speculations about what world would we be living in if… The battle of Hastings can undoubtedly be named among them.
The battle that was fought on October 14, 1066 has defined the further history of England and, taking into account how big the role the Great Britain played and plays in the events going on in the world is, we may say for sure that it influenced the whole world as well. England that existed before that date and what it turned into afterwards are two different countries and, what is more important, two different nations. Pre-Hastings England was occupied primarily by the Saxons; after Hastings the population became strictly divided in two uneven parts: the natives with the Saxons being the most numerous, and the conquerors, mostly the Norman and the French people.
Although nowadays it is fashionable to speak about the equality of all the nations, civilizations and ways of development or even of the inferiority of the Western Civilization in what concerns its relations with other cultures, for example, the Chinese one, to my mind, these opinions are based on either lack of knowledge on the subject or some kind of intellectual masochism that modern decadent Westerners seem to be so keen on displaying.
Western civilization is based on a number of features that have been present in this or that culture for about two thousand years by now, becoming more and more distinctly expressed each time they were inherited by a new civilization. They defined the Greek civilizations that has emerged in the first millennium BC, then were transferred to the Romans who in turn brought this way of thinking across the territory of modern Europe, which many nations accepted and went on carrying it. It characterized many countries of medieval and Renaissance Europe, specifically England, and was finally transferred to the United States of America, making it one of its most prominent heirs.
There is a limited number of historical characters that receive attention in each and every educational program. We start to learn about famous people in the world history since early childhood from our parents and at school. Julius Ceasar, Roman general and a major participant of the transformation of Roman Republic in Roman Empire, is one of those people. The history of Rome during Julius Ceasar is impressive, as this period became one of the major historical eras in transformation of the Roman society. The story of Julius Ceasar is a legend about an individual that can make difference and create the history!